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Scientific rationalization

Dear Colleagues!

Vitamin-mineral complexes of ALFAVIT series could be called preparations of the new generation, since they are first to take into account the scientific recommendations on the separate and combined intake of nutrients. The daily dose of vitamins and minerals in ALFAVIT preparations is divided into three pills, each of which contains only components that are recommended to be taken together. Substances, joint intake of which is undesirable, are separated to different tablets. The components of tablets proceed into the body with intervals and because of that are fully assimilated and do not interact with the components of other tablets. As a result, the body receives the necessary nutrients in full.

The idea of ALFAVIT product line had aroused from the following studies:

  • Vannucchi H. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1991 Mar; 41(1):9-18. Review. Interaction of vitamins and minerals.
  • Kubena K.S., McMurray D.N. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Nov; 96(11):1156-64; quiz 1165-6. Review. Nutrition and the immune system: a review of nutrient-nutrient interactions.
  • Sandstrom B. Br J Nutr. 2001 May;85 Suppl 2:S181-5. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability.
  • He P., Li X.Y. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992; 27(8):618-23. Study on the interaction between water-soluble vitamins by the «three-point-test» of differential scanning calorimetry.
  • Nadiger H.A., Krishnan R., Radhaiah G. Clin Chim Acta. 1981 Oct 8;116(1):9-16. Studies on interactions of vitamin E with thiamine, niacin and vitamin B12

And many other.

During the last years scientists have been given new recommendations on the separate and combined intake of nutrients. Along with the last scientific developments AKVION improves the products of ALFAVIT series, to provide consumers with the most effective preparations.

Here we’ll review the most important facts, about separation of the components with consideration of recommendations on intake in vitamin-mineral complexes of ALFAVIT series and the scientific evidence behind it.

Fact 1: Vitamin prophylaxis using ALFAVIT is 30–50 % more effective comparing with common (one-tablet) vitamin and mineral complexes.

The increased efficiency of vitamin-mineral complexes ALFAVIT is based on account of scientists’ recommendations by the method of taking vitamins and minerals – separately or simultaneously. These recommendations are based on the peculiarities of interaction among vitamins and minerals.
These interactions could be manifested in different forms:

  • Pharmaceutical interactions – physical and chemical reactions during production and storage of the preparation and in the lumen of the intestine.
  • Pharmacokinetic interactions – interactions between vitamins and minerals during absorption, which may lead to a decrease or increase in the speed and completeness of absorption.
  • Pharmacodynamic interactions – the effects of a vitamin or mineral on emergence and implementation of the pharmacological effect of another vitamin or mineral. (For more information see: Rebrov V.G., Gromova O.A. Vitamins, macro-and micronutrients. - M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2008).

In general, the interaction of vitamins and minerals, as well as other biologically active substances can be either a synergistic or antagonistic. Synergy is strengthening of the final effect of the drug. Synergies can be expressed as either a simple summation of effects (additive effect) or as potentiation (overall effect is greater than the sum of the effects of each of the components). Antagonism is weakening or disappearance of the pharmacological effect (for more details see: Mashkovskiy M.D. Medicines: A guide for physicians. - 14 ed. - M.: New Wave, 2000).

The creation of combined preparations of vitamins and minerals, as well as any other combination of drugs, requires studying the nutrient’s compatibility facts. Presently not all the recommendations of scientists are taken into account during creation of vitamin-mineral complexes.

ALFAVIT takes recommendations on the combined intake of nutrients as well as separate. Traditional (single-tablet) vitamin-mineral complexes take into recommendations on the combined intake. But recommendations on the separate intake based on antagonistic interactions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic nature are not accounted for in such complexes.
The unique effect of differentiated approach to ingredient content of vitamin-mineral complexes ALFAVIT, which distinguishes it from one-tablet supplements, is proved by multiple medical, pharmacological and nutritional studies. The results of these studies are published by renown Russian (Gorbachev V.V., Gorbacheva V.N., Korovina N.A., Kudasheva V.A., Mashkovskiy M.D., Spirichev V.B., Suhanov B.P., Tutelyan V.A., Charkevich D.A., Shih E.V. and others) and foreign (Brune M., Colman N., Das K., Drivas G., Foscaldi R., Gelernt M., Hallberg L., Herbert V., Herzlich B., Jennings J., Kanazawa S., L?nnerdal B., Manusselis C., Rossander-Hulten L., Sandstrom B. and others) scientists in monographies, manuals, educational textbooks and specialized printed publications.

For example it is proved that zinc supplements when taken alone significantly increase growth of children, and iron supplements alone – growth and psychomotor development. But combination of this elements does not demonstrate any significant impact on growth and development of children (in more detail: Lind T., L?nnerdal B., Stenlund H. et al A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: effects on growth and development The American journal of clinical nutrition. – 2004, Sep, 80(3):729-36).

Quantitative measures of interactions of vitamins and minerals are given in table «Numerical data of micronutrient interactions».

Numerical data of micronutrient interactions


Numerical characteristic



Vitamins B1, С, mineral Fe ? vitamin В12
Up to 30 % of vitamin B12biological activity is lost, and analogs of B12 that block metabolism of B12 in the organism are formed.
Herbert et al found that 10–30 % of vitamin B12 in multivitamin preparations was converted to analogues worthless to humans, some with anti-B12 action, by the redox action of vitamin C, iron, and other antioxidant nutrients in those preparations.
1. Herbert V., Drivas G., Foscaldi R., Manusselis C., Colman N., Kanazawa S., Das K., Gelernt M., Herzlich B., Jennings J. Multivitamin/mineral food supplements containing vitamin B12may also contain analogues of vitamin B12. // N Engl J Med. 1982 Jul 22;307(4):255–6.
2. Herbert V., Landau L., Bash R., et al. In Zagalak B., Friedrich W. (eds), Vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor. Walter de Gruyter, New York, 1979, pp. 1069–1077. «Ability of megadoses of vitamin C to destroy vitamin B12and cobinamide and to reduce absorption of vitamin B12».
Ca ? Fe
Calcium in form of citrate reduces absorption of iron by 49 % and in form of phosphate by 62 %, while Ca in form of citrate reduces absorption of iron only if taken with food (without food it has no impact)

In the absence of food, calcium carbonate was found not to inhibit the absorption of ferrous sulphate in human subjects dosed concurrently with 600 mg calcium chloride and 18 mg iron. In contrast, calcium citrate and calcium phosphate at the same dose reduced the absorption of the iron by 49 % and 62 %, respectively. When the iron supplement and either of the calcium supplements were taken together with a hamburger meal, all of the calcium supplements were inhibitory with regard to the absorption of the iron (Cook et al., 1991).
Cook J.D., Dassenko S.A., Whittaker P. Calcium supplementation: effect on iron absorption // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991;53:106–111.
Simultaneous intake of ALFAVIT tablets containing calcium, and ALFAVIT tablets containing iron, leads to decrease in iron absorption, expressed in decrease of iron ion absorption by 45,2 %

During intake of 2 tablets of ALFAVIT vitamin-mineral complex containing 36 mg of iron, there was an increase in serum iron concentration starting from 1 hour, which reached a maximum at the 2 hour, and at the 6 hour the iron content in the blood serum did not significantly differ from its value at the zero point. For patients who took two tablets with a total iron content of 36 mg, AUC was 157 ± 32 (mmol / l / h), the ion absorption of iron - 4,36 ± 0,8 (mmol / l / h / mg), with a half-life 6 hours, and the constant elimination of 0,12.
In patients with chronic gastritis which took 36 mg of iron together with two tablets containing a total of 200 mg of calcium, AUC was 86 ± 11 (mmol / l / h), the ion absorption of iron - 2,39 ± 0,4 (mmol / l h / mg), with the same half-life and elimination constant. Intake of calcium simultaneously with iron leads to a decrease in iron absorption, which is shown by decrease in AUC (p = 0,045) and ion absorption of iron by 45,2 % (p = 0.036).
Drozdov V.N., Noskov K.K., Petrakov A.V. The efficiency of iron absorption in the separate and simultaneous intake of calcium // Therapist. – 2007. – September.
Zn ? Ca
Absorption of low doses of calcium taken with zinc was reduced to 39 % vs 61 % in control study.

The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39,3 % vs 61 % respectively, p less than 0,001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake.
Spencer H., Rubio N., Kramer L., Norris C., Osis D. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1987, Feb;6(1):47–51.
Fe ? Mn
Simultaneous uptake of 3 mg of iron and 7,5 mg of manganese leads to reduction of manganese absorption by 20 %, and in case of 15 mg manganese dose – by 34 %
Co-administration of 7,5 or 15 mg manganese (as manganese chloride) with 3 mg iron as ferrous sulphate reduced manganese absorption by 20 and 34 % respectively in human volunteers; when higher doses of iron were given, manganese reduced absorption by a similar level.
Rossander-Hulten L., Brune M., Sandstrom B., Lonnerdal B., Hallberg L. Competitive inhibition of iron absorption by manganese and zinc in humans // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991;54:152–6.
Mn ? Fe
Intake of 15 mg of manganese with 3 mg of iron leads to reduction of iron absorption by 40 %.
When the iron was administered as 3 mg native non-haem iron in a hamburger meal, co-administration of 15 mg manganese reduced iron absorption by 40 %.
Rossander-Hulten L. et al. Competitive Absorption by Manganese and Zinc in Humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991;54:152–6.
Fe ? Zn
Intake of iron in doses higher than 25 mg has a significant negative impact on zinc absorption.
When given in solution, high levels of iron negatively affect zinc absorption. However, zinc absorption from food is not affected by haem iron (Solomons 1986). Solomons postulated that it is the total amount of ionic species that affects the absorption of zinc and that > 25 mg Fe may produce a measurable effect upon zinc absorption. Consequently, to avoid adverse effects on zinc uptake, the author recommended that iron supplements be taken between meals.
Solomons N.W. Competitive interactions of iron and zinc in the diet: Consequences for human nutrition // J. Nutr. 1986;116:927–935.
Zn ? Fe
Increased, compared to iron, doses of zinc (5:1 ratio) reduce the absorption of iron by 56%
A five-fold ratio of zinc to iron (15 mg: 3 mg) given in solution resulted in a 56 % reduction in iron absorption.
Crofton R.W., Gvozdanovic D., Gvozdanovic S., Khin C.C., Brunt P.W., Mowat N.A.G., Aggett PJ. 1989; 50:141–144.

Article Drozdov V.N., Noskov K.K., Petrakova A.V. «Effectiveness of iron absorption during the separate and simultaneous intake with calcium» (Terapevt. - 2007. - September) reports that intake of 2 tablets of ALFAVIT vitamin-mineral complex containing 36 mg of iron, leads to an increase in serum iron concentration starting from 1 hour, which reached a maximum at the 2 hour, and at the 6 hour the iron content in the blood serum does not significantly differ from its value at the zero point. For patients who took two tablets with a total iron content of 36 mg, AUC was 157 ± 32 (mmol / l / h), the ion absorption of iron - 4,36 ± 0,8 (mmol / l / h / mg), with a half-life 6 hours, and the constant elimination of 0,12.

In patients with chronic gastritis which took 36 mg of iron together with two tablets containing a total of 200 mg of calcium, AUC was 86 ± 11 (mmol / l / h), the ion absorption of iron - 2,39 ± 0,4 (mmol / l h / mg), with the same half-life and elimination constant. Intake of calcium simultaneously with iron leads to a decrease in iron absorption, which is shown by decrease in AUC (p = 0,045) and ion absorption of iron by 45,2 % (p = 0.036).
A clinical study of vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT School was conducted in 2009, and it results were published in the article Gromova I., Galeev E.A., Namazova L.S., Torshhoevoy R.M., Krasnykh L.M. «Experience from use of vitamin-mineral complexes in children» (Pediatric Pharmacology. - 2009. - April. – № 2).

The study included 60 children aged 7 to 14 years with the diagnosis: «bronchial asthma, atopic form, mild or moderate course, remission» and / or «pollen disease in remission».
In the study 20 patients (group 2a), receiving an adequate basic treatment, had been appointed to 1 month of vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT School, 1 tablet of each color per day during a meal, with a food scheme: pink pill - morning, orange – day, white - evening (the interval between pills is 4-6 hours).

20 patients (group 2b), received adequate basic therapy and 1 month of supplementation with vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT School, 3 tablets at one time during the morning meal.
20 patients (group 2c), received adequate basic therapy, and placebo for 1 month in the same way as the patients in group 2a.

After receiving the vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT School the levels of vitamins in the blood serum of patients were re-determined, identifying their significant increase in group 2a, whereas in patients belonging from groups 2b and 2c, the vitamin content in the serum was not significantly changed.

Dynamics of the content of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C and E in blood serum of children with allergic diseases

Vitamin А,
ng/ml (250–490)
Vitamin В1,
ng/ml (30–50)
Vitamin В2,
ng/ml (1,5–40)
Vitamin В6,
ng/ml (5–30)
Vitamin С,
ng/ml (4–15)
Vitamin Е,
ng/ml (4–10)

Group 2а
Group 2b
Group 2с
*– significant difference, p < 0,05

In the article: Shih E.V. Interactions of iron and calcium // Russian Medical Journal: Human and Drug. – 2006, Vol 14 – #4 (256), the following facts are mentioned:

  • In experiment with 34 healthy volunteers, they were given physiological amount of salts of calcium and phosphorus acid in form of monopreparations or in form of mix. In case of monopreparation no significant alterations of non-heme iron absorption were detected, while intake of mix resulted in decrease of iron absorption by 20 %.
  • A group of 12 healthy women volunteers received preparations containing either calcium with iron, or iron alone in amount 2 times smaller than in the first preparation. The study demonstrated that blood levels of iron were almost equal for two preparations. The authors attribute this effect to absence of iron in the second preparation.
  • Previously was demonstrated that 12 % of iron is absorbed from monopreparation, containing 65 mg of iron, while only 3-5 % was absorbed from a multimineral complex. If the content of calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide in the preparation is decreased, the absorption of iron is increased to 7 %. This data was obtained from experiments, where experimental group included pregnant women, who received food supplements with varying amount of calcium.
  • Absorption of iron from cow and human milk was compared using doubly labeled isotopes method. Absorption of iron from cow milk was only 19,5 +/- 17,3 % , while the same factor for human milk was 48,0 +/- 25,5 %. Because human milk contains several fold less calcium than cow milk, authors speculated that the difference in iron absorption could be attributed to that. And, indeed, addition of calcium chloride to human milk in such way so the concentration of calcium would be comparable to cow milk reduced the iron absorption in half.
  • Separation of calcium and iron intake in time allows excluding interactions between them.

The article: Korovina N.A. Vitamin-mineral deficiency // Russian Medical Journal. – 2004, also contains the following information:

  • ….. calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide inhibit absorption of iron and vitamin B12 worsens possible allergic reaction on vitamin B1. This means that interactions of components influences stability, efficiency and safety of preparations
  • Multivitamins, in which antagonistic substances are more convenient in use (one, although big tablet, versus 3 in new preparations), but less efficient (up to 30% reduction in efficiency for some vitamins)

The article: Shih E.V. Connection of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics // Manual for policlinic doctors. – 2005 – #4, the following is asserted:

  • Manganese, iron and zinc are absorbed by the same transport system. As a result each of this minerals is only partially absorbed. For example, in case of simultaneous uptake of 7,5 mg of Mn and 3 mg of Fe, the absorption of Mn is reduced by 20 %, and if the dose of Mn is increased to 15 mg – by 34 %. Intake of 15 mg of Mn with 3 mg of Fe led to reduction of Fe absorption by 40 %. Ca in form of citrate reduces Fe absorption by 49 %, in form of phosphate – by 62 %. Zinc reduces iron absorption by 50 %. The absorption of calcium, if it is taken simultaneously with zinc is reduced by 30 %.
  • For example, a comparative analysis of bioavailability of 3 composite preparations, which was conducted in USA, revealed that variations of bioavailability of vitamin B12 can be as high as 30-33 %. This is probably due to components that have impact on absorption of cyanocobalomine - iron and ascorbic acid.

The article contains some pharmacokinetic parameters for some vitamins, when taken as monotherapy or in complex with other vitamins:


В1 (1,7 mg)

В6 (2 mg)

С (60 mg)








51,2 mkg/ml

48,6 mkg/ml

53,0 mkg/ml

36,4 mkg/ml

29,5 mkg/ml

16,03 mkg/ml















Annotation. 1 – monopreparation; 2 – multivitamin complex; Сmax – peal concentration; AUC – area under curve concentration-time, which characterizes the total amount of substance absorbed into circulation; Tmax – Time to maximum observed plasma drug concentration

The article by Shih E.V. Rational vitamin therapy during pregnancy // Russian Medical Journal. – 2006 – Vol 14 – #1, contains the following facts:

  • According to some researchers, the estimated amount of iron, which is needed to be taken from vitamin and mineral complexes, is about 3.5 mg, which corresponds to the daily need for a healthy person. But the study conducted on healthy volunteers demonstrated that 1,8-3,1 mg of iron is absorbed from complex preparations. This is probably a result of competition for absorption between iron and calcium, and also magnesium that are also present in vitamin-mineral complexes. This suggestion was confirmed by experiments, which demonstrated that reduction of calcium and magnesium salts increases the amount of absorbed iron up to the required daily norm - 3,5 mg. Furthermore if other metals are excluded from the complexes the absorption of iron increases to 8,1 mg.
  • If calcium and iron are contained in one tablet it is recommended to increase the dosage of iron to compensate it losses during absorption (60 mg of iron instead of 30 mg). But even more reasonable is to separate this minerals into two different tablets.
  • Recently several clinical studies detected antagonistic interaction between folic acid and zinc. For example, pregnant women, which took 0.35 mg / day of folic acid had elevated levels of zinc excretion. The relationship between the level of folic acid and zinc concentration in blood plasma was shown in a study of infants, which received 1 mg / day of folic acid during the first 16 weeks of life. This interaction is double-edged, because zinc, in turn, reduces absorption of folic acid. Series of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that at low pH zinc and folic acid form insoluble complexes. If these complexes are formed inside the stomach, they partially dissolve in more basic pH of small intestine. But if these complexes are formed in the tablet, before the preparation is taken, then the complex would not dissolved, which results in reduction of efficiency of preparation.

The article by Ahn E. Kapur B., Koren G. Iron bioavailability in prenatal multivitamin supplements with separated and combined iron and calcium // Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada. – 2004; 26(9):809–13, the researchers studied absorption of iron from LI and HICA supplements. The absorption of iron was almost equal, while LI contains only small amount of iron, and HICA – twice of that amount. The result was explained by the fact that LI does not contain calcium. It is possible that, while providing the same amount of iron, LI supplement would be more easily tolerated by women who are sensitive to adverse effects of iron.

In the article by Derek H. Shrimpton – Nutritional Implications of Micronutrient Interactions» // Journal Chemist & Druggist. – 2004, May 15, the following facts are given:

  • In multivitamin-mineral complexes, in absence of iron, no chemical reactions happen, while if iron is present vitamin B12 can lose up to 30 % of its activity.
  • Manganese reduces the absorption of iron by 40 %, although the effect varies depending on presence of other micronutrients and the form of iron.
  • It is unlikely that consumers of multivitamin-mineral complexes are put at risk, because the manufacturers does not take into account interactions between nutrients, but if interactions of micronutrients are ignored the declared benefit of such complexes could not be fully fulfilled.

In the article Sandstrom B. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability // British Journal of Nutrition. – 2001, May; 85 Suppl 2:S181–5, the following facts are mentioned:

  • An addition of 150 mg of calcium to bread or a hamburger meal reduced iron absorption by 50 %. (Tumlund et al. 1988)
  • Zinc supplementation (50 mg/d for 10 wk) in adult females reduced indices of iron and copper status (Yadrick et al. 1989).

In article by Strizhakova A.N. and Budanova P.V. Synergic vitamin therapy is a basis for optimization of pre-conceptional preparation and prenatal care // Questions of gynecology, perinatology and pediatrics. – 2006, December, the following is reported:

  • The separation of components with unwanted interactions provides full absorption, reduces adverse reactions, provides hypoallergenicity of the preparation and increases efficiency of prophylaxis and treatments of hypovitaminosises by 30-50 %.
  • ALFAVIT Mom’s Helath – is the first in the world vitamin-mineral complex made with consideration of components interactions. This principal advantage enhances its efficiency (by more than 30 %) and provides hypoallergenicity.
  • Uptake of ordinary multivitamin complex (in which the daily dose of vitamins and minerals is included in one tablet) leads to active “interference” of some of the components with absorption of other components by the organism. This fact is illustrated by the following examples:
  • Zinc reduces absorption of copper, which can lead to anemia and decrease of HDL-cholesterol.
  • Zinc competes for absorption with iron and calcium.
  • Calcium and iron interfere with manganese absorption.
  • It is very crucial that supplements, containing calcium interfere with absorption of iron.
  • Vitamin E is poorly compatible with iron.
  • Zinc can lead to more than two fold reduction of iron absorption, the absorption of calcium is reduced by 36 %, in case of interaction with zinc, calcium reduces the absorption of iron by 50%.

The article by Zamzam K. Roughead, Carol A. Zito, Janet R. Hunt Inhibitory of dietary calcium on the initial uptake and subsequent of heme and nonheme iron in humans: comparisons using an intestinal lavage method// American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005; 82:589-97, demonstrates that ingestion of calcium reduces absorption of heme iron by 20 % (from 49 to approximately 40 % for both types of food (P=0,02)) and reduces the overall absorption of iron from foos with low and high bioavailability by 25 % (from 0,033 nj 0,025 mg (p=0,06) and from 0,55 mg 0,4 mg (p<0,01 respectively).

The article by Torbj?rn Lind, Bo L?nnerdal, Hans Stenlund, Djauhar Ismail, Rosadi Seswandhana, Eva-Charlotte Ekstr?m and Lars-?ke Persson A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: interactions between iron and zinc. // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition April 2003, Vol. 77, № 4, 883–890, the following is demonstrated:

  • At the start of the study the levels of a anemia, iron deficiency anemia (anemia and low level serum ferritin) and low levels of zinc in blood serum (<10,7 µmol/L) was 41 %, 8 % and 78 % respectively. After supplementation, the Fe group had higher level of hemoglobin (119.4 compared with 115.3 g/L; P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (46.5 compared with 32.3µg/L; P < 0.05) values than did the Fe+Zn group, indicating an effect of zinc on iron absorption. The Zn group had higher serum zinc (11.58 compared with 9.06 µmol/L; P < 0.05) than did the placebo group. There was a dose effect on serum ferritin in the Fe and Fe+Zn groups, but at different levels. There was a significant dose effect on serum zinc in the Zn group, whereas no dose effect was found in the Fe+Zn group beyond 7 mg Zn.
  • Supplementation with iron and zinc was less efficacious than were single supplements in improving iron and zinc status, with evidence of an interaction between iron and zinc when the combined supplement was given).

Therefore the argument about prevailing efficiency of use of vitamin-mineral complexes of ALFAVIT series in comparison with one-tablet complexes is based on numerical characteristics of micronutrient interactions, which were considered during development of three tablets.

Fact 2: The absence of unwanted interactions provides hypoallergenicity of ALFAVIT complex.

Some vitamin monopreparations and complexes could cause allergic reactions. Their source of such reactions could be vitamins or accessory substances that are included in preparations. In case of intake of multivitamin preparations allergic reaction could be caused by different combinations of vitamins and microelements.

Allergic reactions could develop in the course of intake of vitamins and vitamin-like substances. The most diverse in form and severity are allergic reactions caused by vitamins of B group(В1, В2, В6, В12). Vitamin B1 can cause allergic reaction even when taken in prophylactic doses. Vitamin B12 enhances B1 allergic action.

There is risk of anaphylactic shock during administration of vitamins C, B1 and lipoic acid.

Folic acid could cause diverse reactions of skin, bronchial spasm, fever and erythema. Nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) could lead to hyperemia of face and upper of part of the body, generalized rush (hives), episodes of spasmodic asthma. Frequently a hypoallergenic co-ferment form, called nicotinamide is used (The vitamin-mineral complexes ALFAVIT include nicotinamide for this reason).

It is well known that vitamin B12 could enhance allergic reactions, caused by vitamin B1 (see, for example Korovina N.A. Mineral substances in multivitamin preparations // Pharmaceutical herald – 2003 - #38), and that allergic reactions for vitamin B1 are very common. Because of that it is arguable that separation of these two vitamins in two tablets in the ALFAVIT complex would reduce the risk of allergic reaction (and would enhance safety of the preparation). Also use of multivitamin tablets could lead to allergic reactions on complexes of vitamins and minerals. Therefore separation of vitamins and minerals into several tablets would reduce the risk of allergy.

In article by Korovina N.A. Use of multivitamins for compensation of B vitamins deficiency // Pharmaceutical Herald – October 28th, 2003 – #34 (313), the following facts are given:

  • Some combinations of micronutrients could compromise the safety of preparation, because of chemical reactions among them, which lead to formation of harmful substances.
  • The consideration of interactions of vitamin B12 and vitamins C and B1, iron and copper is most crucial.
  • Vitamin C, especially in presence of iron, copper, vitamin B1 could oxidize vitamin B12 and transform it into useless and antagonistic analogs. One of adverse effects of such analogs is destruction of the intrinsic factor (IF), i.e. improper (with vitamin C) intake of vitamin B12 causes direct harm to the organism.

The renowned manual «Medicines: A guide for physicians» by M.D. Mashkovskiy contains data that vitamin B1 could cause allergic reactions not only in case of parenteral injection, but also in common prophylactic doses in people susceptible to allergies, climacteric and premenopausal women, and alcoholics. There is also noted that vitamin B12 could enhance allergic reaction caused by vitamin B1. Ignorance of this fact leads to reduction of preparation safety.

Therefore vitamin B12 should be taken separately from vitamin C. It is also advised to make a time interval between intake of vitamin C and preparations containing iron, copper and vitamin B1. In case of separated intake (in different tablets) the concentration peaks of antagonistic substances are achieved at different time, which lowers the possibility of adverse reactions.

The ingredients of vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT

In vitamin-mineral complex ALFAVIT most known and scientifically proved recommendations on the separate and combined intake of nutrients (almost 40) are taken into account.

Positive and negative interactions between the micronutrients


Interactions with other vitamin or mineral

The nature of interaction

Vitamin A
Vitamins E, C
Protects vitamin A from oxidation
Required for metabolism of vitamin A and its transformation into active form *
Vitamin B 1
Vitamin B 6
Slows transformation of vitamin B 1 into biologically active form
Vitamin B 12
Enhances allergic reaction to vitamin B 1. Cobalt ion in the molecule of cyanocobalamin contributes to destruction of vitamin B 1 *
Vitamin B 6
Vitamin B 12
Cobalt ion in the molecule of cyanocobalamin contributes to destruction vitamin B 6 *
Vitamin B 9
Inhibits the absorption of vitamin B 9 due to formation of insoluble complexes
Vitamin C
Promotes conservation of vitamin B 9 in tissues
Vitamin B 12
Vitamins C, B 1;
iron, copper
Under the action of vitamins C, B 1, iron and copper, vitamin B12 is turned to useless analogs
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Restores oxidized vitamin E
Strengthens antioxidant effects of each other
Calcium, zinc
Reduces the absorption of iron
Vitamin A
Increases the absorption of iron. The level of hemoglobin in case of joint admission of iron and vitamin A is higher than when taking only iron
Vitamin C
Increases the absorption of iron, enhances iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract
Vitamin D
Increases bioavailability of calcium, potentiates calcium absorption in bone tissue
Reduces absorption of calcium
Reduces absorption of calcium
Vitamin B 6
Promotes absorption of magnesium, penetration and retention of magnesium in the cells
Reduces the absorption of magnesium
Calcium, iron
Impairs absorption of manganese
Reduces the absorption of copper
Reduces absorption of molybdenum
Reduces absorption of chromium
Vitamin B 9
(Folic acid)
Inhibits the absorption of zinc due to the formation of insoluble complexes
Calcium, iron, copper
Reduces absorption of zinc in the intestine
Vitamin B 2
Increases the bioavailability of zinc

Orange color indicates negative interactions

Blue color indicates positive interactions

* The present interaction is true only for liquid forms of vitamins.